Multiverse, Meta-Universe? What is it Exactly?
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite
or finite possible universes (including the historical universe we
consistently experience) that together comprise everything that
exists and can exist: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy
as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The
term was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist
William James. The various universes within the multiverse are
sometimes called parallel universes.
Well there are many different theorys to explain that which we always
here about this whole Multiverse thing. Now I come from an
understanding of Dungeons and Dragons and the planescape Manual or
back when I was first looking at it when I started at things, the
Manual of the Planes.
It was a book that gave all kinds of
descriptions of classes and worlds, different areas and descriptions
that worked within the DnD universe. Now many of you on here may have
read the DragonLance books or ForgottenRealms. I personally Loved
them. these were some of the worlds that were connected into the
structure of DnD. But for the purposes of this article these were
simply planes. they were worlds that connected to each other and DnD
connected them through a staircase. Now this is common in folklore.
Connecting worlds through various means bridges, stairs, trees or
other means. Thinking of things as if they are layered. Because in
may respects things are. Now theres a science to it. But in the
roleplay world I want to explain first how different stories have
come to understand it.
Mount Olympus was the Home of the Gods of Greece and the Underworld
was underground deep and held the souls of the damned but existed on
another plane ruled by hades. Called the Elysian fields.
In Norse religion, Asgard (Old Norse: ”Ásgarðr”; “Enclosure of the
Æsir” is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods.
It is surrounded by an incomplete wall attributed to a Hrimthurs
riding the stallion Svaðilfari, according to Gylfaginning. Odin and
his wife, Frigg, are the rulers of Asgard.
One of Asgard’s well known locations is Valhalla, in which Odin
The Cherokee revered the Great Spirit,simply referred to as Unelanuhi
or “the Apportioner,” who presided over all things and created the
Great Spirit is said to be omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient.
Often called Apportioner and Creator, and was said to have made the
earth to provide for her children.
The Wahnenauhi Manuscript says that God is Unahlahnauhi, meaning
“maker of all things” and Kalvlvtiahi, meaning “The one who lives
The Cherokee held that signs, visions, dreams, and powers were all
gifts of the spirits, and that their world was intertwined with and
presided over by the spirit world.
Note the word spirit world, as in a secondary world.
Now I wont continue bring you listing every single religion belief
system out there or historical account but throughout every type of
belief we held some kind of belief in an alternate reality. Why is
that? It is grounded in some real facts. These facts are what you
base your roleplay on. With them you will be more accurate and it
will come off more precise. Now are all these theories correct?
I dont say they are. they are simply put theories on how it works.
The idea of a multi or meta/megaversa is a concept that has been
around for a long time…
made very famous from movies like jet-li’s the one, and buckaroo
banzai across the eight dimension.
In any case some theorys that have been offered are:
Max Tegmark’s four levels
Cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond
the familiar observable universe. The levels according to Tegmark’s
classification are arranged such that subsequent levels can be
understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels, and they are
briefly described below
A generic prediction of chaotic inflation is an infinite ergodic
universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes
realizing all initial conditions.
Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of
Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical
constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of
matter, almost all will differ from our Hubble volume. However,
because there are infinitely many, far beyond the cosmological
horizon, there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, and
even identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical
volume to ours should be about 210118 meters away from us. Given
infinite space, there would, in fact, be an infinite number of Hubble
volumes identical to ours in the universe. This follows directly from
the cosmological principle, wherein it is assumed our Hubble volume
is not special or unique.
Level II: Universes with different physical constants
“Bubble universes”: every disk is a bubble universe (Universe 1 to
Universe 6 are different bubbles; they have physical constants that
are different from our universe); our universe is just one of the bubbles.
In the chaotic inflation theory, a variant of the cosmic inflation
theory, the multiverse as a whole is stretching and will continue
doing so forever, but some regions of space stop stretching and form
distinct bubbles, like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread. Such
bubbles are embryonic level I multiverses. Linde and Vanchurin
calculated the number of these universes to be on the scale of
Different bubbles may experience different spontaneous symmetry
breaking resulting in different properties such as different physical
This level also includes John Archibald Wheeler’s oscillatory
universe theory and Lee Smolin’s fecund universes theory.
Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
Hugh Everett’s many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is one of several
mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics. In brief, one aspect
of quantum mechanics is that certain observations cannot be predicted
absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations, each
with a different probability. According to the MWI, each of these
possible observations corresponds to a different universe. Suppose a
die is thrown that contains six sides and that the numeric result of
the throw corresponds to a quantum mechanics observable. All six
possible ways the die can fall correspond to six different universes.
(More correctly, in MWI there is only a single universe but after the
“split” into “many worlds” these cannot in general interact.)[Tegmark
argues that a level III multiverse does not contain more
possibilities in the Hubble volume than a level I-II multiverse. In
effect, all the different “worlds” created by “splits” in a level III
multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in some
Hubble volume in a level I multiverse. Tegmark writes that “The only
difference between Level I and Level III is where your doppelgängers
reside. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional
space. In Level III they live on another quantum branch in infinite-
dimensional Hilbert space.” Similarly, all level II bubble universes
with different physical constants can in effect be found as “worlds”
created by “splits” at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in
a level III multiverse.
Related to the many-worlds idea are Richard Feynman’s multiple
histories interpretation and H. Dieter Zeh’s many-minds
Level IV: Ultimate Ensemble
The ultimate ensemble or mathematical universe hypothesis is the
hypothesis of Tegmark himself. This level considers equally real all
universes that can be described by different mathematical structures.
Tegmark writes that “abstract mathematics is so general that any
Theory Of Everything (TOE) that is definable in purely formal terms
(independent of vague human terminology) is also a mathematical
structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of
entities (denoted by words, say) and relations between them (denoted
by additional words) is nothing but what mathematicians call a set-
theoretical model, and one can generally find a formal system that it
is a model of.” He argues this “implies that any conceivable parallel
universe theory can be described at Level IV” and “subsumes all other
ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses,
and there cannot be say a Level V.”
Jürgen Schmidhuber, however, says the “set of mathematical
structures” is not even well-defined, and admits only universe
representations describable by constructive mathematics, that is,
computer programs. He explicitly includes universe representations
describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after
finite time, although the convergence time itself may not be
predictable by a halting program, due to Kurt Gödel’s limitations. He
also explicitly discusses the more restricted ensemble of quickly
Brian Greene’s nine types
American theoretical physicist and string theorist Brian Greene
discussed nine types of parallel universes:
The quilted multiverse works only in an infinite universe. With an
infinite amount of space, every possible event will occur an infinite
number of times. However, the speed of light prevents us from being
aware of these other identical areas.
The inflationary multiverse is composed of various pockets where
inflation fields collapse and form new universes.
The brane multiverse follows from M-theory and states that each
universe is a 3-dimensional brane that exists with many others.
Particles are bound to their respective branes except for gravity.
The cyclic multiverse has multiple branes (each a universe) that
collided, causing Big Bangs. The universes bounce back and pass
through time, until they are pulled back together and again collide,
destroying the old contents and creating them anew.
The landscape multiverse relies on string theory’s Calabi–Yau shapes.
Quantum fluctuations drop the shapes to a lower energy level,
creating a pocket with a different set of laws from the surrounding
The quantum multiverse creates a new universe when a diversion in
events occurs, as in the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
The holographic multiverse is derived from the theory that the
surface area of a space can simulate the volume of the region.
The simulated multiverse exists on complex computer systems that simulate entire universes.
The ultimate multiverse contains every mathematically possible universe under different laws of physics.
Main article: Cyclic model
In several theories there is a series of infinite, self-sustaining
cycles (for example: an eternity of Big Bang-Big crunches).
See also: Introduction to M-theory, M-theory, Brane cosmology, and
String theory landscape
A multiverse of a somewhat different kind has been envisaged within
string theory and its higher-dimensional extension, M-theory.
These theories require the presence of 10 or 11 spacetime dimensions
respectively. The extra 6 or 7 dimensions may either be compactified
on a very small scale, or our universe may simply be localized on a
dynamical (3+1)-dimensional object, a D-brane. This opens up the
possibility that there are other branes which could support “other
universes”. This is unlike the universes in the “quantum multiverse”,
but both concepts can operate at the same time.
Some scenarios postulate that our big bang was created, along with
our universe, by the collision of two branes.
Main article: Black-hole cosmology
A black-hole cosmology is a cosmological model in which the
observable universe is the interior of a black hole existing as one
of possibly many inside a larger universe.
Main article: Anthropic principle
The concept of other universes has been proposed to explain how our
Universe appears to be fine-tuned for conscious life as we experience
it. If there were a large (possibly infinite) number of universes,
each with possibly different physical laws (or different fundamental
physical constants), some of these universes, even if very few, would
have the combination of laws and fundamental parameters that are
suitable for the development of matter, astronomical structures,
elemental diversity, stars, and planets that can exist long enough
for life to emerge and evolve. The weak anthropic principle could
then be applied to conclude that we (as conscious beings) would only
exist in one of those few universes that happened to be finely tuned,
permitting the existence of life with developed consciousness. Thus,
while the probability might be extremely small that any particular
universe would have the requisite conditions for life (as we
understand life) to emerge and evolve, this does not require
intelligent design per the teleological argument as the only
explanation for the conditions in the Universe that promote our
existence in it.
Search for evidence
Physicists are currently searching for disk-like patterns in cosmic
microwave background radiation which could provide evidence of
collisions between other universes and ours. So far, analysis of data
from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has not revealed
any evidence of a bubble universe collision. However, the WMAP is
limited in the scale of bubble collisions it is capable of detecting.
Future data from the Planck satellite, which has a resolution 3 times
higher than WMAP and an order of magnitude greater sensitivity, can
be used to more definitively test the bubble collision hypothesis.
Recent research has indicated the possibility of the
gravitational pull of other universes on ours.
Claims of first evidence found
Scientists say that they have found evidence that our universe
collided with other (parallel) universes in the distant past. This
claim emerged after studding of patterns in the cosmic microwave
background radiation (CM, the after-effects of the Big Bang, made
by Planck space observatory operated by the European Space Agency
(ESA), and designed to observe anisotropies of the cosmic microwave
background (CM at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high
sensitivity and small angular resolution, in which they may have
found evidence that four circular patterns recognized in the CMB are
“cosmic bruises” where our universe has crashed into other universe
(s) at least four times.
A collision induces a temperature change in the CMB temperature map.
The ‘blob’ associated with the collision is identified by a large
needlet response, and the presence of an edge is determined by a
large response from the edge detection algorithm. The findings are
based on the complex theory of eternal inflation for our universe.
This theory holds that our universe is only one bubble in a larger
cosmos and that other universes, which will have different physics to
our own, all exist at the same time.
In his 2003 NY Times opinion piece, A Brief History of the
Multiverse, author and cosmologist, Paul Davies, offers a variety of
arguments that multiverse theories are non-scientific :
For a start, how is the existence of the other universes to be
tested? To be sure, all cosmologists accept that there are some
regions of the universe that lie beyond the reach of our telescopes,
but somewhere on the slippery slope between that and the idea that
there are an infinite number of universes, credibility reaches a
limit. As one slips down that slope, more and more must be accepted
on faith, and less and less is open to scientific verification.
Extreme multiverse explanations are therefore reminiscent of
theological discussions. Indeed, invoking an infinity of unseen
universes to explain the unusual features of the one we do see is
just as ad hoc as invoking an unseen Creator. The multiverse theory
may be dressed up in scientific language, but in essence it requires
the same leap of faith.
— Paul Davies, A Brief History of the Multiverse
Taking cosmic inflation as a popular case in point, George Ellis,
writing in August 2011, provides a balanced criticism of not only the
science, but as he suggests, the scientific philosophy, by which
multiverse theories are generally substantiated. He, like most
cosmologists, accepts Tegmark’s level I “domains”, even though they
lie far beyond the cosmological horizon. Likewise, the multiverse of
cosmic inflation is said to exist very far away. It would be so far
away, however, that it’s very unlikely any evidence of an early
interaction will be found. He argues that for many theorists, the
lack of empirical testability or falsifiability is not a major
concern. “Many physicists who talk about the multiverse, especially
advocates of the string landscape, do not care much about parallel
universes per se. For them, objections to the multiverse as a concept
are unimportant. Their theories live or die based on internal
consistency and, one hopes, eventual laboratory testing.” Although he
believes there’s little hope that will ever be possible, he grants
that the theories on which the speculation is based, are not without
scientific merit. He concludes that multiverse theory is a
“productive research program”:
As skeptical as I am, I think the contemplation of the multiverse is
an excellent opportunity to reflect on the nature of science and on
the ultimate nature of existence: why we are here… In looking at this
concept, we need an open mind, though not too open. It is a delicate
path to tread. Parallel universes may or may not exist; the case is
unproved. We are going to have to live with that uncertainty. Nothing
is wrong with scientifically based philosophical speculation, which
is what multiverse proposals are. But we should name it for what it
— George Ellis, Scientific American, Does the Multiverse Really
On the other hand, as regards the criticism of lack of empirical
testability or falsifiability, claims have been made
that Laura Mersini-Houghton, a theoretical physicist, has developed
(together with collaborators) a theory for the birth of the universe
from the landscape multiverse that included four predictions proposed
in 2006, two of which have since been observed: the
Cold Spot (2007) and the deviation of the CMB Amplitude (2010).
 In 2007, Mersini-Houghton proposed that the
observed CMB cold spot was “the unmistakable imprint of another
universe beyond the edge of our own”, just as she and her
collaborators had predicted in their theory 8 months earlier. The
validity and significance of these claims remains disputed, with
several other possible causes being suggested for the Southern Cold
Spot, and doubts being expressed about the existence of a Northern
Cold Spot, and about the existence and velocity of Dark Flow, and so
Again regarding the criticism of lack of empirical testability or
falsifiability, speaking on BBC TV’s Science series Horizon’s ‘How
Big is the Universe?’ program (first broadcast 27 August 2012),
Professor Anthony Aguirre of University of California, Santa Cruz,
stated that collisions between universes (which he described as
‘bubbles’) in the eternal inflation version of the multiverse could
leave behind evidence in the cosmic microwave background which should
be detectable by the next generation of satellites.
See also: Kolmogorov complexity
Critics argue that to postulate a practically infinite number of
unobservable universes just to explain our own seems contrary to
Max Tegmark answers:
“A skeptic worries about all the information necessary to specify all
those unseen worlds. But an entire ensemble is often much simpler
than one of its members. This principle can be stated more formally
using the notion of algorithmic information content. The algorithmic
information content in a number is, roughly speaking, the length of
the shortest computer program that will produce that number as
output. For example, consider the set of all integers. Which is
simpler, the whole set or just one number? Naively, you might think
that a single number is simpler, but the entire set can be generated
by quite a trivial computer program, whereas a single number can be
hugely long. Therefore, the whole set is actually simpler. Similarly,
the set of all solutions to Einstein’s field equations is simpler
than a specific solution. The former is described by a few equations,
whereas the latter requires the specification of vast amounts of
initial data on some hypersurface. The lesson is that complexity
increases when we restrict our attention to one particular element in
an ensemble, thereby losing the symmetry and simplicity that were
inherent in the totality of all the elements taken together.
the higher-level multiverses are simpler. Going from our
universe to the Level I multiverse eliminates the need to specify
initial conditions, upgrading to Level II eliminates the need to
specify physical constants, and the Level IV multiverse eliminates
the need to specify anything at all.”
“A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest
and arguably most elegant theory involves parallel universes by
default. To deny the existence of those universes, one needs to
complicate the theory by adding experimentally unsupported processes
and ad hoc postulates: finite space, wave function collapse and
ontological asymmetry. Our judgment therefore comes down to which we
find more wasteful and inelegant: many worlds or many words. Perhaps
we will gradually get used to the weird ways of our cosmos and find
its strangeness to be part of its charm.”
Used various wikipedia articles for research, so I will cite them as a source.